Since the start of the migration crisis in 2015, the challenges of addressing the influx of irregular migrants have been a major focus of the European public discourse. In 2022, Frontex (European Border and Coast Guard Agency) recorded nearly 330,000 illegal border crossings at the external borders of the European Union, the highest number since 2016. In addition, 966,000 asylum applications have been submitted to Member States, which is approximately double the number of applications for 2021.

In light of this, it is less surprising that more than two thirds (78%) of the people in the 38 European countries surveyed are concerned about the influx of irregular migrants into Europe. In all countries except Albania (49%), there is a majority of people expressing concern about this issue, even in traditionally pro-migration societies in Sweden (78%), Germany (75%), France (73%) and the Netherlands (68%). In terms of perceptions of Christian culture, the survey shows that the majority of EU respondents (56%) would like to preserve Europe’s Christian culture and traditions, while 35% of those who would move towards a more secular culture. Preserving Christian foundations is most important to the populations of the former socialist bloc (65%) and the V4 countries (61%).